Within this context, the following definition of Stakeholder is used:
- A stakeholder is a person, group or organization that has interest or concern in a [target] organization. Stakeholders can affect or be affected by the [target] organization’s actions, objectives and policies. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/stakeholder.html
- Note: [target] added for clarification purposes
In a centralized or decentralized topography, this definition is adequate; however, in a distributed topography the understanding of what the [target] organization is becomes important. In a DIDO, this is by design and intent. There is no centralized authority or centralized cluster for the data, the processing of which is considered a major feature of the distributed architecture. It is a network of peers working together in parallel and simultaneously to solve problems. In other words, no single organization owns:
all the computer resources or control them
the definition of, or has control over, the processes
the definition of data structures or data being distributed
In contrast to distributed systems, centralized systems (i.e., mainframes) are the authority for computation and data. In essence, the only reality is the processes and data that reside in the centralized system.
This is also in contrast to decentralized systems (i.e., traditional cloud servers), which rely on well-orchestrated and coordinated efforts of a few well connected and synchronized systems. Collective servers are the authority for the computation and data. In essence, the only reality is that which can be found on the decentralized servers; the infrastructure is expected to keep the software and data consistent and synchronized. However, this only needs to be concerned with servers that, although they are decentralized, still fall under a single authority thereby making the requirements, architecture, design, implementation, and maintenance relatively easy.
Both centralized and decentralized systems often have extensive data models and functionality, which adds to the complexity of managing them. This generally requires a single governing body (i.e., enterprise) to be ultimately responsible for the entire ecosystem and the lifecycle of the systems and the integration of components including hardware, operating systems, database management systems, web servers, application servers, software languages, networking, and other protocols. These “stacks” often result in stovepipe solutions.
In distributed systems, much of the ecosystem and governance of the components is handled by various Communities of Interest (CoIs): each has a responsibility for different aspects of the distributed system. The traditional role of a corporation or enterprise is to participate in these communities. The following graphic illustrates the various communities considered to be “customers” of the DIDO RA.
- is responsible for the software used to distribute and control data within the Node Network, for example Bitcoin, Ethereum, Iota, DDS, and IPFS.
- is responsible for the use of the data distributed on the Node Network, for example currency, rewards programs, or certificates.
- is responsible for a collection of domains associated with a particular ares of interest, such as green groceries, interest rate swaps, a particular tank, or class of automobiles.
- is responsible for a collection of domains and ecosystems associated with a common governance, which crosses over multiple areas of interest, such as military, government, automotive, or finance.
- is responsible for the exchange of data (tokens) from one domain or ecosystem with data in another domain or ecosystem, for example exchanging Bitcoins for U.S. dollars, or strawberries for jars of jam.
- is responsible for being the systems integrator of all the domains, ecosystems, and ecospheres needed to fulfill the mission and goals of a corporation or organization, such as an auto company, a chain of retail stores, or a bank.
Each of these areas is explained in more detail in the following views, concluding with a list of standards applicable to these Stakeholder Views: